Yapou: Governments in Exile, 1939-1945

[Return to Table of Contents]


Notes

Introduction Czechoslovakia Poland Norway Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Greece Yugoslavia

Unless otherwise stated, documents referred to by number are in the Public Record Office, London.

Introduction  [top]

1. Joachim von Ribbentrop, The Ribbentrop Memoirs, introduction by Allan Bullock, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954, p. 166.
2. Maurice Flory, Le Statut international des gouvernements réfugiés et le cas de la France libre, 1939-1945, Paris, A. Pedone, 1952, p. 2; see also A. Jumeau, Le Réfuge du Gouvernement National à l’Etranger,
3. L. Oppenheim, International Law, vol. 1, Peace, paragraphs 115 and 155a; also Arnold McNair, “Municipal Effects of Belligerent Occupation,” Law Quarterly Review, January 1941, pp. 33-73; also F. E. Oppenheimer, “Governments and Authorities in Exile”, American Journal of International Law, vol. 36, 1942, pp. 568-595.
4. Amand Case, High Court of Justice, King’s Bench Division (1942), I. All E.R. 236, 250.
5. Parliamentary Debates H.C. 1940-41, p. 329.
6. See text in Dietrich Schindler and Jiří Toman (eds.), The Laws of Armed Conflicts. A Collection of Conventions, Resolutions and Other Documents, 3rd rev. ed., Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
7. Supreme Court of Germany, Leipzig, July 26, 1915. Fontes Juris Gentium, Ser. 1, sec. II, vol. 1, p. 486.
8. Llewellyn Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, vol. I, p. 324.
9. Ibid., p. 325.
10. FO 371/28212/06307, Documents Relating to the Position of General de Gaulle vis-à-vis His Majesty’s Government, July-September 1940.
11. Woodward, vol. I, p. 327.
12. Ibid., vol. II, p. 338.
13. Ibid., vol. I, p. 325. See also Charles de Gaulle, The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle, p. 94.
14. Woodward, vol. II, p. 340.
15. Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, vol. II, p. 1241.
16. Woodward, vol. II, p. 459.
17. François Kersaudy, Churchill and De Gaulle, p. 297.
18. Ibid.
19. FO 371/26451/C6163/G, June 7, 1941, minute by R. M. Makins.
20. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War (henceforth referred to as "Churchill"), vol. II, p. 645, Prime Minister to General Ismay. Aix-en-Provence (Doctoral Dissertation), 1941.

Chapter 1: Czechoslovakia - From Putney to Prague  [top]

1. Eduard Beneš, Memoirs of Dr. Eduard Beneš. From Munich to New War and New Victory, p. 51.
2. Ibid., p. 52.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. FO 371/21588.
6. Beneš, p. 97.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid., p. 55.
11. Ibid., p. 56.
12. Ibid., p. 61.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid., p. 65.
15. Ibid., p. 68.
16. Ibid., p. 297.
17. Ibid., p. 296.
18. Ibid. This document may well have been the swan song of the man who brought the Soviet Union into the League of Nations. A few weeks later he was replaced by Molotov, with his different spirit and method in diplomacy.
19. Ibid., p. 72.
20. Ibid., p. 74.
21. Ibid., p. 77.
22. Ibid., p. 78.
23. Ibid., p. 79.
24. Ibid., p. 82.
25. Ibid., p. 83.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Robert Bruce Lockhart, Comes the Reckoning, p. 60.
30. Beneš, p. 91.
31. Ibid., p. 89.
32. Ibid., p. 92.
33. Ibid., p. 107.
34. Ibid., p. 91.
35. Ibid., p. 95.
36. Ibid., p. 97. Curiously, the future President Hácha himself, in perfectly good faith, urged President Beneš at the height of the 1938 crisis to test Germany’s intentions directly and interrupt talks with Paris and London.
37. Ibid., p. 99.
38. Ibid.
39. Ibid., pp. 99-100.
40. Ibid., p. 99.
41. FO 371/30826, Hubert Ripka’s letter to the Foreign Office, November 11, 1942.
42. FO 371/24288.
43. Ibid.
44. Ibid.
45. Bruce Lockhart, Comes the Reckoning, p. 92.
46. FO 371 C6283, April 29, 1940.
47. FO 371 C7646, June 25, 1940.
48. Beneš, p. 103.
49. Ibid.
50. FO 371/24289/05710–C7646/2/12, June 21, 1940.
51. FO 371/24289/05710, June 21, 1940.
52. FO 371/24289/05710, July 1, 1940.
53. FO 371/24289/05710–C7646/2/12, July 1, 1940.
54. Ibid.
55. FO 371/26394/06071, April 20, 1941.
56. Ibid.
57. FO 371/26394/06071–C4078/1320/12.
58. FO 371/26394/06071–C7140/7140/12.
59. FO 371/26394/06071–C7511/216/12.
60. FO 371/26394/06071–C7511/216/12 – July 7, 1941.
61. FO 371/26394/06071–C7977, July 18, 1941.
62. FO 371/26394/06071–C7992/1320/12, July 18, 1941.
63. The Trial of German Major War Criminals. Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal sitting at Nuremberg, 23 vols., London, H.M. Stationery Office, 1946-1951, vol. XII.
64. The War Diaries of Oliver Harvey, 1941-1945, edited by John Harvey, p. 61.
65. Compton Mackenzie, Dr. Beneš, p. 325.
66. Beneš, p. 206.
67. Ibid., p. 202.
68. Ibid., p. 208.
69. Ibid.
70. FO 371/26394/06071–C7992/1320/12, July 18, 1941.
71. J. W. Bruegel, Czechoslovakia before Munich. The German Minority Problem and British Appeasement Policy, p. 108.
72. Ibid., p. 107.
73. Ibid., p. 234.
74. Beneš, p. 214.
75. Ibid.
76. Ibid., p. 213.
77. Ibid., p.331.
78. Ibid., p. 305.
79. Ibid.
80. Ibid., p. 306.
81. Ibid., p. 327.
82. Ibid., p. 331.
83. Ibid., p. 328.
84. Ibid., p. 329.
85. Ibid., pp. 140-141.
86. Ibid., p. 141.
87. Ibid.
88. Ibid.
89. Ibid., p. 142.
90. Ibid. p. 270.
91. Ibid., p. 271.
92. Ibid., p. 272.
93. Ibid., p. 273.
94. Ibid.
95. Ibid., p. 275.
96. Ibid., p. 242; Compton Mackenzie, p. 303.
97. Beneš, p. 243; Compton Mackenzie, p. 303.
98. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M., 1938-1945, p. 540.
99. Elisabeth Barker, Churchill and Eden at War, pp. 263-266.
100. Ibid., p. 265.
101. Ibid., pp.264-268.
102. Beneš, p. 255 ff.
103. Ibid., p. 257
104. Ibid.
105. Ibid., p. 262.
106. Ibid., p. 285.
107. According to “Textes Sélectionnés – Documents”, Moscow, 1960, reviewed by Marc Ferro in Revue d’Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, No. 81, 1962, Stalin in a letter to Beneš of January 22, 1945, referred to the “malaise” created between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union regarding the future of Sub-Carpathian Ukraine. He claimed it was Beneš who first talked to him of the cession of this territory, whose “rattachement” to Russia “answered the freely expressed aspirations of the population.” Whether such a promise was made by Beneš to Stalin is not entirely clear. According to M. Ferro, President Beneš intended to proceed with the cession of Ruthenia to the USSR after a solemn inter-allied proclamation of the restoration of the pre-war frontiers of the Republic. It seems that he meant this cession to take the form of a free act of good will of Czechoslovakia towards its great neighbour and not under pressure of the untimely, and for him irritating, “zeal” of local Ukrainian or Soviet authorities or organisations.

Chapter 2: Poland – The Polish Eagle  [top]

1. Jan Ciechanowski, Defeat in Victory, Garden City, New York, Doubleday, 1947, and Victor Gollancz, London, 1948, p. 15.
2. FO 371–C19288/27/55; Antony Polonsky, “The British and the Polish Government-in-Exile”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London during the Second World War, Imperial War Museum, London, 1977, p.4.
3. Edward Raczyński, In Allied London, pp. 56-58.
4. FO 371–C14059/8526/55.
5. House of Lords Debates, No. 114, October 26, 1939.
6. FO 371–C17490/1321/55.
7. FO 371–C7337/G.
8. Polonsky, p. 6.
9. FO 371–C 7337/G.
10. Marian Kukiel, Six Years of Struggle for Independence. Report on the Polish Fighting Forces in the Second World War, Newton, Montgomeryshire Print Co., 1947, and Six Ans de Guerre pour l’Indépendance, Compte-Rendu du Ministère de la Défense Nationale de Pologne sur les Forces Polonaises dans la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Paris, Editions Libella, 1948.
11. FO 371–C7495 (No. 322).
12. FO 371–M295/1, March 15, 1941.
13. FO 371–C1639/G.
14. Churchill, vol. III, p. 108.
15. Churchill, vol. IV, p. 267.
16. FO 371/26735–C1639/G.
17. FO 371/26735–C732/G, January 20, 1941.
18. FO 371/31094–C2204/807/55.
19. FO 371/24289–C7646/2/12.
20. Archives Diplomatiques, Paris, Politique Extérieure des Puissances Etrangères, CNF, Londres, 271, 11 B 39, document 11.
21. Ibid., document 70.
22. FO 371/28584/06406 (document 227).
23. Archives Diplomatiques, document 107.
24. FO 371/24378, p. 205, November 18, 1940, and pp. 229-30, November 21, 1940.
25. FO 371/30871/06483–C1544/1543/62.
26. FO 371/30871/06483–C10396/1543/62 (No. 385).
27. FO 371/26755/06245–C7016/3226/55 (No. 97).
28. FO 371/26755/06245–C7421/3226/55 (No. 107).
29. FO 371/26755/06245–C7423/3226/55 (No. 108).
30. FO 371/26755/06245–C7492.
31. FO 371/26755/06245–C7865/3226/55, July 15, 1941.
32. Anthony Eden, The Reckoning. The Eden Memoirs, p. 320.
33. Churchill, vol. III, p. 391.
34. Raczyński, pp. 96-97.
35. Ibid. In a footnote in his memoirs he later admitted his error in estimating the relative strength of Germany and the Soviet Union, p. 96.
36. FO 371/26738.
37. Ciechanowski, p. 38.
38. FO 371/26755/06245–C7016/3226/55.
39. FO 371/26755/06245–C7590/3226/55.
40. Poland. Official Government Documents, vol. XVII, document 6. Reproduced by Edward J. Rozek in Allied Wartime Diplomacy. A Pattern in Poland, p. 59.
41. Bruce Lockhart, Comes the Reckoning, p. 110.
42. Poland. Official Government Documents, vol. XVII, document 12; quoted in Rozek, p. 60.
43. Woodward, vol. II, p. 613.
44. Ibid.
45. Rozek, p. 83. See also General Wladyslaw Anders, Mémoires, 1939-1946, p. 118.
46. Rozek, p. 87.
47. Ibid., p. 88.
48. Ibid., p. 89.
49. Ibid., p. 114.
50. Anders, pp. 147-148.
51. Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, The Patterns of Soviet Domination, p. 25.
52. Michael Borwicz, “L’Occupant souhaitait-il un Quisling Polonais?”, Revue d’Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, no. 52, October 1963, pp. 98-102.
53. Ibid., p. 101.
54. Poland. Official Government Documents, vol. LVI, document 70; Evening Standard, February 23, 1944.
55. Rozek, p. 95; Poland. Official Government Documents, vol. X, document 58, and vol. IV, document 30.
56. Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. An Intimate History, pp. 709 and 710.
57. Woodward, vol.II, p. 600, note.
58. Polonsky, n. 27, quoting Documents on Polish-Soviet Relations, 1939-1945, London, Heinemann, 1961-1967, Vol. 1, no. 210.
59. Woodward, vol. II, p. 620.
60.Ibid., p. 228.
61. Raczyński, p. 106.
62. Ibid., p. 110.
63. Eden, p. 319.
64. Ibid., p. 323.
65. FO 371 C/9361/8531.
66. FO 371 C/9969, September 12, 1940.
67. Mikolajczyk, p. 47.
68. Sunday Times, January 11, 1942.
69. FO 371/24292/05664(173).
70. FO 371/24292/05664(183).
71. FO 371/26755/06245 (10), January 31, 1941.
72. Ibid.
73. FO 371 C12165/151/12.
74. Raczyński, p. 187.
75. Rozek, p. 157.
76. Eden, p. 422.
77. Churchill, vol. V, p. 362.
78. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. An Intimate History, p. 70.
79. Rozek, p. 226.
80. Eden, p. 421.
81. Rozek, p. 120
82. Ibid., pp. 194-196.
83. Ibid.
84. Woodward, vol. III, p. 177.
85. Mikolajczyk, p. 324.
86. Ibid., p. 325.
87. Ibid., pp. 309, 312 and 315.
88. Ibid., p. 115; Woodward, vol. III, p. 233.
89. Mikolajczyk, p. 117; Woodward, vol. III, p. 236.
90. Samuel L. Sharp, Poland. White Eagle on a Red Field, p. 175, quoting Wladyslaw Anders: An Army in Exile: The Story of the Second Polish Corps, London, Macmillan, 1949.
91. Woodward, vol. III, p. 203.
92. Raczyński, p. 303.
93. Ibid., pp. 320-321.
94. Bor-Komorowski, The Secret Army, pp. 211-213.
95. Mikolajczyk, p. 91.
96. Rozek, p. 249.
97. Hull, pp. 1445-1447.
98.Rozek, p. 251; Churchill, vol. VI, pp. 139-140.
99. Churchill, Ibid., p. 140.
100. Ibid., pp. 135-136.
101. Ibid., p. 136.
102. Elisabeth Barker, Churchill and Eden at War, p. 256.
103. Ibid., p. 257.
104. Philip Selznick, The Organizational Weapon. A Study of Bolshevik Strategy and Tactics, p. 232; quoted by Sharp, p. 183.
105. Mikolajczyk, p. 82.
106. Ibid., p. 86.
107. FO 371–C14115, October 12, 1944; Woodward, vol. III, p.224.
108. Recherches internationales à la lumière du marxisme, Paris, No. 12, Mars-Avril 1959, pp. 58-59.
109. Sharp, p. 183.
110. Kukiel, p. 43.
111. Barker, Churchill and Eden at War, p. 254.
112. Rozek, p. 389.

Chapter 3: Norway – Neutral Into Ally  [top]

1. Woodward, vol. I, p. 119.
2. FO 371/24833/114235–N5941/1130/30, dated British Legation in Norway, May 30, 1940.
3. Woodward, vol. I, p. 128.
4. FO 371/24833/14035–N5730-2045, May 31, 1940.
5. Woodward, vol. I, p. 129.
6. FO 371/24833/2729–N5745, June 6, 1940.
7. Woodward, vol. I, p. 130.
8. FO 371/24833/114235–N5852/1130/30, dated British Legation in Norway, June 4, 1940.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Woodward, vol. I, p. 131.
13. Ibid.
14. FO 371/24833/114235–N5730, May 31, 1940.
15. FO 371/24833/2729–N5745, June 4, 1940.
16. FO Cab. 65/13, 2439, W.M. (40) 155th, Conclusions, Minute 6, Confidential Annex, June 5, 1940.
17. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M., 1938-1945, p. 294, June 5, 1940.
18. FO 371/248233/2729–N5745, June 6, 1940.
19. Ibid.
20. FO 371/24833–N5746, June 5, 1940.
21. FO Cab. 65/13 W.M. (40) 156th. Conclusions, Minute 5. Confidential Annex, June 6, 1940.
22. Woodward, vol. I, p. 131.
23. Tim Greve, Haakon VII of Norway. Founder of a New Monarchy, p. 147.
24. Monica Curtis (ed.), Documents on Foreign Affairs. Norway and the War. September 1939–December 1940, p. 119.
25. T. K. Derry, A History of Modern Norway 1814-1972, p. 386.
26. Curtis, p. 129.
27. Ibid., pp. 131-134.
28. Ibid., pp. 135-136.
29. Derry, p. 383.
30. FO 371/24833/114235–N7520/1130/30, quoting Norsk Tidende of December 3, 1940.
31. Ibid.
32. Curtis, p. 139.
33. FO 371/24838–N6452/6184/30.
34. Woodward, vol. I, p. 74.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid., p. 85.
38. Derry, p. 370.
39. FO 371/24828–N7471/213/30.
40. FO 371/29422–N6510/87/30.
41. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M., 1938-1945, p. 420.
42. FO 371/52853/114235–N3525/3271/30.
43. FO 371/29421, April 8, 1941.
44. Ibid., April 4, 1941.
45. Ibid., April 8, 1941.
46. Ibid.
47. Ibid.
48. Ibid., April 9, 1941.
49. FO 371/29421, April 8, 1941
50. FO 371/29421–N1307/87/30, April 12, 1941.
51. FO 371/352813–N3525/3271/30, July 22, 1942.
52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. Ibid.
55. FO 371/32823/114235–N2081, April 20, 1942.
56. Ibid.
57. FO 371/52853/114235, September 8, 1942.
58. FO 371/43209–N4239/196/69.
59. Woodward, vol. I, p. 187.
60. Ibid., p. 188.
61. Ibid., p. 192.
62. Olav Riste, The Neutral Ally. Norway’s Relations with Belligerent Powers in the First World War, p. 228.
63. FO 371/24838–N5738/G, Telegram No. 763.
64. Ibid.
65. FO 371/24838–N5885/G, –June 24, 1940.
66. Ibid., June 26, 1940.
67. Ibid.
68. FO 371/24838–N5885/G, Telegram No. 781.
69. Woodward, vol. I, p. 204, n. 1.
70. FO 371/24833/114235–N5801/1130/30, June 12, 1940.
71. Ibid.
72. FO 371/37066–N96/1/42.
73. Erik Boheman, from an article in Dagens Nyheter, April 4, 1948, quoted in Survey of International Affairs, 1939-1946. The Realignment of Europe, edited by Arnold and Veronica M. Toynbee, issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Oxford University Press, London, 1955, p. 191.
74. Peter Ludlow, “Britain and Northern Europe 1940-1945”, p. 151.
75. FO 371/37112–N4225/663/42.
76. FO 371/31525.
77. Cab 65 W.M. 161(42)2 – Cab 65 W.M. 149 (42) 2 and 3.
78. FO 371/29693–N6973/2581/24.
79. FO 371/36867–N2081/219/63.
80. FO 371/43500–N7760/565/42.
81. Manchester Guardian, May 21, 1943.
82. FO Cab W.M. 80/89, COS (44) 1047/(0).
83. FO 371/47506–N1714/158/30.
84. Curtis, p. 191.
85. FO 371/40538–U1190/5/74.
86. FO 371/52853/114235–N5097/978/G.
87. FO 371/36874/114139, November 23, 1944.
88. Ibid.
89. Knut Einar Erikssen, “Great Britain and the Problem of Bases in the Nordic Area 1945-1947,” Scandinavian Journal of History, 1982, Vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 136-143.
90. FO 371/36874/114139, November 23, 1944.
91. FO 371-N419/30, January 15, 1943.
92. FO 371–N890/419/30.
93. Ibid.
94. M. R. D. Foot, S.O.E. An Outline History of the Special Operations Executive, 1940-1946, London, BBC, 1984, and University Publications of America, Frederick, Maryland, 1986, p. 210.

Chapter 4: Belgium – Disintegration and Resurrection  [top]

1. Robert Aron, Léopold III, ou, Le Choix Impossible, février 1934-juillet 1940, p.332.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid.
4. Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 (DGFP), May 1940, no. 456, document 331.
5. Ibid., document 335.
6. Jean Stengers, Aux Origines de la question royale. Léopold III et le gouvernement. Les deux politiques belges de 1940, p. 56, note 113.
7. DGFP, p. 482, document 355.
8. I Documenti Diplomatici Italiani 1939-1943, IV, Rome, 1960, quoted in Stengers, p. 57.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. DGFP, document 240, July 26, 1940.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid., document 167, July 1940.
18. Jacques Willequet, Les Fascismes Belges de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, p. 96. [publisher, etc.? not found so far. Not in 1990 version…]
19. Ibid., p. 94.
20. Paul-Henri Spaak, The Continuing Battle. Memoirs of a European, 1936-1966, pp. 38-39.
21. Ibid., pp. 39-40.
22. Paul Reynaud, In the Thick of the Fight, 1930-1945, pp. 357-358.
23. Ibid., pp. 358-360.
24. Aron, p. 86.
25. Spaak, p. 46.
26. The present account of the meeting is based on the following sources: Reynaud, pp. 420-426, and Rapport de la Commission d’Information instituée par S. M. le Roi Léopold III, le 15 Juillet 1946, Annexes 38 and 39, pp. 69-75.
27. La Libre Belgique, March 13, 1973.
28. DGFP, document 183, October 18, 1940.
29. Ibid.
30. Stengers, p. 157, note 412.
31. DGFP, November 19, 1940, document 356, pp. 612-619.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. Ibid.
35. Ibid.
36. Adolf Hitler, introductory essay by H. R. Trevor-Roper, Secret Conversations, 1941-1944, p. 280.
37. DGFP, May 9, 1941, document 569, p. 925.
38. Rapport de la Commission d’Information, see note 26 above, p. 137.
39. Ibid.
40. Ibid., p. 138.
41. FO 371/2635.
42. From a copy handed to Cordell Hull, U.S. Secretary of State, by Ambassador Lord Halifax, 5.2.41, US N.A. 855001, Leopold/80.
43. FO 371–C6873/31/18; also Woodward, vol. I, p. 185.
44. Marcel Henri Jaspar, Souvenirs sans retouche, p. 425.
45. Ibid., pp. 429-430.
46. Ibid.
47. FO 371/24275.
48. Fernand Vanlangenhove, La Belgique et ses garants. L’été 1940, p. 68.
49. FO 371/24275, Halifax to Aveling, July 8, 1940; van Langenhove, p. 81.
50. Camille Gutt, La Belgique au carrefour,1940-1944, pp. 129-131.
51. Vanlangenhove, p. 119.
52. Ibid., p. 140.
53. Ibid., pp. 131-132.
54. Spaak, p. 74.
55. Ibid., p. 73.
56. Dalton Diary, September 26, 1940, Dalton Papers, quoted in Geoffrey Warner, “Legitimacy, Gold and Guarantees: Britain and the Belgian Government in London, 1940-1941”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977, n. 2. According to Warner, the Dalton papers were in the British Library of Economic and Political Science, London.
57. Ibid., p.3.
58. Stengers, p. 128, note 332.
59. Warner (see above, note 56), p. 3.
60. FO 371/26335–C117/G, Eden minute, December 18, 1940; Warner paper, p. 5.
61. FO 371/24277–C13459, Cadogan minute, December 18, 1940; Warner paper, p. 5.
62. Eden, The Reckoning. The Eden Memoirs, p. 571.
63. FO 371–C12970.
64. Spaak, pp. 49, 50.
65. Ibid., p.74.
66. Ibid.
67. Emile Cammaerts, The Prisoner at Laeken. King Leopold, Legend and Fact, p. xvii.
68. Robert E. Sherwood, The White House Papers of Harry L. Hopkins, vol. II, p. 252.
69. FO 371–C972/402/4, January 23, 1942.
70. Ibid.
71. Ibid.
72. FO 316/30785, February 10, 1942.
73. Ibid.
74. Henri de Man, Cavalier seul. 45 années de socialism européen, p.236.
75. John Allyne Gade, All My Born Days. Experiences of a Naval Intelligence Officer in Europe, New York, C. Scribner, 1942, p. 35.
76. Auguste Buisseret, in a speech given on November 23, 1949, published in Le Flambeau, Brussels,No. 6, 1949, p. 577.
77. Le Soir, Brussels, July 5, 1942.
78. Recueil des documents établis par le Secrétariat du Roi concernant la période 1936-1949 (Secr. Roi); pp. 390-391, note 391 (Brussels).
79. Ibid., pp. 390-391.
80. Spaak, p. 74.
81. Hubert Pierlot, Pages d’histoire, XII, Le Soir, July 19, 1947.
82. Recueil, pp. 499-501.
83. Ibid.
84. Ibid., pp. 501-502.
85. Ibid., p. 506.
86. Courier Hebdomadaire – Dossier ‘Question royale’ – du CRISP, no. 646, May 24, 1947.
87. Recueil, pp. 393-398.
88. Sherwood, The White House Papers of Harry L. Hopkins, vol. II, p. 705.
89. Spaak, p. 69.
90. Gutt, pp. 142-151.
91. W.M. (40) 178.
92. Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 90.
93. Gutt, p. 161.
94. Ibid.
95. Warner (see above, note 56) p. 6.
96. Ibid.
97. Ibid., p. 8, quoting dispatch to Eden T/160/1212/F16964/1.
98. Warner, p. 9.
99. Ibid., p. 10, Amery letter February 3, 1941; FO 371/26330–C1032/G.
100. Ibid., T/160/1212/F16964/1.
101. Jacques Willequet, ”Le gouvernement belge à Londres 1940-1945”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977, p. 6.
102. Gutt, pp. 164-167.
103. Ibid.
104. Ibid.
105. Spaak, p. 76.
106. Ibid.
107. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M.,1938-1945, October 7, 1939, p. 222.
108. FO 371/30802/06444–C1200/1200/4.
109. Ibid.
110. Ibid.
111. FO 371/30802/06444–C1200/1200/4, February 12, 1942.
112. FO 371/30802/06444 (No. 42), March 6, 1942.
113. Archives Diplomatiques, Paris, Comité National Français, Londres, IIB 11a, document 123.
114. Spaak, pp. 82, 83.
115. Ibid., p. 91.

Chapter 5: Luxembourg – The Smallest Ally  [top]

1. Georges Heisbourg, Le gouvernement luxembourgeois en exil, Vol. 1, 1940, p. 25.
2. Emile Haag, “Le Gouvernement luxembourgeois en 1940”, Hemecht, 1985, no. 4; Luxembourg and the German Invasion, Before and After, with a preface by M. Joseph Blech, Foreign Minister of the Grand-Duchy, published by authority of the Government of Luxembourg, London, Hutchinson and Co., 1942, p. 31.
3. Heisbourg, p. 28.
4. FO 371–C8119/8119/4; FO 371/26373/06098–C11448/11448/17; Heisbourg, p. 62.
5. Heisbourg, pp. 54-56.
6. Ibid., p. 63.
7. Ibid., p. 67.
8. Ibid., p. 88.
9. Ibid., p. 101.
10. Ibid., pp. 128-129; U.S. National Archives NA 850A.0091 and NA 850A.01/42.
11. Heisbourg, p. 132.
12. Ibid., p. 155.
13. Ibid., pp. 143-145.
14. Ibid., p. 157.
15. Ibid., p. 158.
16. Ibid., p. 162.
17. Ibid., pp. 161-162.
18. Ibid., p. 172; FO 371/24312.
19. Heisbourg, p. 175.
20. Ibid., pp. 208-210.
21. Ibid., p. 210; FO 371/24375.
22. Henri Koch-Kent, Années d’exil 1940-1946, Luxembourg, Hermann, 1985.
23. Heisbourg, p. 239.
24. FO 371/38874–C12233/105/4.

Chapter 6: The Netherlands – Under the Banner of the Queen of Orange  [top]

1. E. N. van Kleffens, Juggernaut Over Holland, p.158.
2. W.M.132(40) 4, May 21, 1940.
3. W.M.123(40) 4, May 15, 1940.
4. Adrian F. Manning, “The Position of the Dutch Government in London up to 1942”, p. 121.
5. Ibid., pp. 122-123.
6. Ibid., p. 134, note 2.
7. FO371/24458–C2011/1046/29. Bland to Halifax, January 31, 1940; minute by Makins, February 19, 1940.
8. Charles Eade (ed.), The War Speeches of the Right Hon. Winston S. Churchill, p. 137.
9. FO 371/26707–C 10432/C, September 16, 1941.
10. FO 371/26707–C 10432/418/G, September 25, 1941.
11. Amand Case (1941), 2 K/B/239.
12. A.F. Manning and A.E. Kersten, Documents Relating to the Foreign Policy of the Netherlands 1919-1945, No. 195, July 22, 1940 – Council of Ministers.
13. Ibid., July 24, 1940, No. 199.
14. Ibid., July 22, 1940, No. 195.
15. Ibid., July 18, 1940, No. 183.
16. Ibid., July 20, 1940, No. 193.
17. Ibid., July 26, 1940, No. 214.
18. Louis de Jong, “The Netherlands Government in London 1940-1945,” paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977.
19. FO 371 C9595/G; report by Charles Tower, August 31, 1940.
20. FO 371 C9765.
21. The Times, February 7, 1941.
22. FO 371/26681/0164.
23. Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, vol. I, p. 336.
24. Manning and Kersten, No. 447.
25. Manning, p. 127.
26. Ibid.
27. Woodward, vol. II, p. 180.
28. Ibid., p. 178.
29. Cab. 65/14, W.M. 214(40); Manning, p. 135.
30. Manning and Kersten, No. 314C.
31. Ibid., No. 314B.
32. Ibid., No. 314A.
33. Manning, p. 128.
34. FO 371/94631; Archives Diplomatiques, Guerre 39/45, Série 268, no. 14.
35. Woodward, vol. II, p. 179.
36. Eden, p. 312, July 30, 1941.
37. Ibid., p. 310, May 15, 1941.
38. Archives Diplomatiques, Guerre 39/45, Série 268, no. 14.
39. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M., 1938-1945, p. 398.
40. Manning and Kersten, No. 551, June 24, 1941.
41. FO 371/31026.
42. Loudon to Van Kleffens, June 5, 1942; NMFA, file GA/JZ 46, Cypher Telegrams, nos. 987-989, quoted from Albert E. Kersten, The Dutch and the American Anti-Colonialist Tide, 1942-1945, pp. 5-6.
43. Elliott Roosevelt (ed.), F.D.R., His Personal Letters, vol. 2, 1928-1945, part 2, New York, 1949, p. 1305, quoted in Kersten, p. 5.
44. Kersten, p. 10.
45. Ibid., p. 13.
46. Ibid., p. 29.
47. Ibid., p. 28.
48. De Gaulle-Van Kleffens conversation, September 28, 1941, Archives Diplomatiques, Guerre 39/45, CNF Londres, 268-II-B-37.
49. English translation in H.R.H. Wilhelmina, Princess of the Netherlands, Lonely but not Alone, translated by John Peereboom, London, Hutchinson, 1960, pp. 174-175, quoted in P.H.M. Bell, “The British and the Dutch Government in Exile, 1940-1945”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977.
50. Manning and Kersten, No. 56.
51. Ibid., No. 60.
52. Ibid., June 30, 1941, No. 73.
53. Ibid., July 5, 1941, No. 86.
54. Ibid., July 8, 1941, No. 90.
55. FO 371/26703, July 4, 1941.
56. Manning and Kersten, No. 118, July 16, 1941.
57. Ibid., September 17, 1941, No. 273.
58. Ibid., September 24, 1941, No. 292.
59. Ibid., October 20, 1941, No. 354.
60. Ibid., November 24, 1941, No. 466.
61. Ibid., November 28, 1941, No. 486.
62. Ibid., September 30, 1941, No. 308.
63. Ibid., October 7, 1941, No. 319.
64. Amry Vandenbosch, Dutch Foreign Policy Since 1815. A Study in Small Nations Power Politics, p. 141.
65. Ibid., pp. 142-146.
66. FO 371/26681/06184–C12825, November 20, 1941.
67. Sunday Times, January 18, 1942.
68. E. H. Carr, Conditions of Peace, pp. 240-241.
69. Vandenbosch, pp. 289-290.
70. The Times, March 27, 1943.
71. The Times, March 25, 1943.
72. Vandenbosch, pp. 290-291.
73. Woodward, vol. V, p. 194.
74. Ibid., p. 189.
75. Ibid., p. 192.
76. Ibid.; minute by the Prime Minister to Mr. Eden, dated November 25, 1944.
77. Ibid., p. 193.
78. Memorandum on the Policy to be pursued with regard to Germany after its defeat, Memorandum van de Medewerker van de Afdeling Consulaire en Handelzaken van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken, De Beus, February 1942, BZ, LA: Groot Archief: DD/BNOV-D 3.
79. J.M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, p. 252.
80. International Military Tribunal. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B II, p. 894, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1948, p. 894.
81. Ibid., p. 12.
82. FO 371/39760, file 17867.
83. Foreign Affairs, July 1944, vol. 22, pp. 43-44.
84. FO 371/39358–C14888/29, October 27, 1944.
85. Ibid.
86. October 1940 – FO 371/24462.
87. Ibid.
88. Ibid., No. 293, November 18, 1940.
89. Ibid., No. 294, November 6, 1940.
90. FO 371/24462–C11792(317).
91. Louis de Jong, “The ‘Great Game’ of Secret Agents”, Encounter, London, January 1980, pp. 12-21. See also M. R. D. Foot, S.O.E., An Outline of the Special Operations Executive, 1940-1946, London, BBC, 1984, pp. 129-133, and University Publications of America, Frederick, Maryland, 1986.
92. Foot, p. 135.
93. FO 371–C7996/G.
94. FO 371/39346, Reay’s minute, June 11, 1944.
95. Gijs van der Ham, Wilhelmina in Londen 1940-1945.
96. New Statesman and Nation, London, February 26, 1944, and March 4, 1944.
97. FO 371/39924; New Statesman and Nation, London, August 12, 1944, and August 19, 1944; Tribune, London, August 18, 1944, and August 25, 1944.
98. FO 371/49404, Bland to Eden, January 20, 1945, and February 9, 1945.
99. Louis de Jong, “The Netherlands Government in London 1940-1945”, p. 21.

Chapter 7: Greece – From National Unity to Civil War  [top]

1. FO 371/43699, King George of the Hellenes to Mr. Churchill, December 14, 1944; Elisabeth Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, p. 154.
2. Richard Clogg, “The Greek Government-in-Exile: Some British Perspectives”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977, p. 10.
3. Stelio Hourmouzios, No Ordinary Crown. A Biography of King Paul of the Hellenes, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1972, pp. 128-129.
4. Ibid.
5. FO 371/29839-R 3817; also, FO 371/29840–R 3991; Clogg (above, n. 2) p. 11, n. 22.
6. Colonial Office to Foreign Office – R363/150/19.
7. FO 371/29886–R 7201.
8. FO 371/24377–C11719/G.
9. FO 371/24378–C 11871.
10. Clogg (see above, n. 2), p. 7.
11. FO 371/29817–R 8633 and FO 371/29842–R 10918.
12. Woodward, vol. III, p. 384.
13. FO 371/33166, January 4, 1942.
14. FO 371/33166, December 31, 1941.
15. FO 371/33166–R 161/112/19, January 7, 1942.
16. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 1, p. 778.
17. FO 371/33167 (file 112)–R 598/112/19, January 27, 1942.
18. FO 371/33167 (file 112)–R 771/112/19, February 2, 1942.
19. Woodward, vol. III, p. 385.
20. FO 371/33166–R 452/442/G, Halifax telegram 369, January 20, 1942.
21. FO 371/33164–R 1549, March 3, 1942.
22. FO 371/33164-R1549, March 13, 1943.
23. Ibid.
24. The Greek White Book. Diplomatic Documents Relating to Italy’s Aggression Against Greece, Greek Ministry for Foreign Affairs, London, Hutchinson, 1942, p. 5.
25. FO 371/29817–R8008, December 1941.
26. FO 371/29838–R10333; Clogg (see above, n.2), p. 12.
27. FO 371/37232–R2455/2455/19, March 13, 1943.
28. FO 371/37232–R2455/19, April 27, 1943.
29. FO 371/37232–R2455, March 13, 1943.
30. FO 371/33171–R1253/445/G.
31. FO 371/33171–R1150, January 4, 1942.
32. FO 371/33171–R 1018/150/19, February 11, 1942.
33. FO 371/33171–R 150/150/19, January 13, 1942.
34. FO 371/33171–R 445/445/G, January 20, 1942.
35. FO 371/33171–R732; ALS/55532, January 29, 1942.
36. FO 371/33171–R1254/G, February 24, 1942.
37. FO 371/33171–R654/150/19, February 3, 1942.
38. FO 371/33171–R1255, February 24, 1942.
39. FO 371/33172–R1475, February 27, 1942.
40. E. C. W. Myers, Greek Entanglement, p. 112.
41. Ibid., p. 129.
42. Ibid., pp. 130-131.
43. Ibid., p. 192.
44. Ibid., p. 193.
45. Woodward, vol. III, p. 393.
46. Churchill, vol. V, p. 536.
47. Myers, pp. 238-240.
48. Churchill, vol. V, p. 536.
49. Ibid., p. 537.
50. FO 371/37231–R7894/1/G.
51. FO 371/37231–R7894/11/G.
52. FO 371/37200–R10894/1/G (no. 7420).
53. Myers, p. 260.
54. FO 371/37231–R11260/2455/19, Lord Selborne to Sir Orme Sargent, November 3, 1943.
55. FO 371/37231–R 11260/2455/19, November 17, 1943.
56. Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, p. 165.
57. FO 371/37231 – W.P.(43) 518, November 14, 1943.
58. Woodward, vol. III, p. 393.
59. Ibid., p. 397.
60. FO 371/37231–R9703/G, October 5, 1943.
61. FO 371/37231–R13070/G, No. 283, November 11, 1943.
62.  Anthony Eden, The Reckoning. The Eden Memoirs, p. 130.
63. Ibid.
64. Woodward, vol. III, p. 402.
65. Reginald Leeper, When Greek Meets Greek, p. 38.
66. Ibid., pp. 39-40.
67. Ibid., p. 40.
68. Ibid., p. 48.
69. Churchill, vol. V, p. 544.
70. Ibid., p. 545 – April 9, 1944.
71. Ibid., p. 546 – April 12, 1944.
72. Ibid., p. 546 – April 14, 1944.
73. Ibid., pp. 548-549 – April 18, 1944.
74. Leeper, p. 48.
75. George A. Papandreou, The Third War, Athens, The Hellas, 1948.
76. Leeper, p. 49.
77. FO 371/43731/7607, May 19, 1944.
78. FO 371/43731–R 7784/G, No. 299, May 17, 1944.
79. FO 371/43731–R7995/19.
80. FO 371/43711–R7608, May 13, 1944.
81. FO 371/43731–R7643/745/19, May 2, 1944.
82. Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), vol. V, p. 109; Revue d’Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, No. 136, October 1984, p. 86.
83. FO 371/43731–R 7823/745/9, No. 763 to Dominions, May 19, 1944.
84. Leeper, p. 55.
85. Revue d’Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, p. 88.
86. FO 371/3723 – W.P.(43)518, November 14, 1943.
87. FO 371/43731–R7758/9/G, May 26, 1944, D. S. Laskey, FO, to D. Balfour, British Embassy to Greece, Cairo.
88. Eden, p. 459, June 6, 1944.
89. Harold Macmillan, The Blast of War 1939-1945, p. 581.
90. Woodward, vol. III, p. 410.
91. Macmillan, p. 622.
92. Churchill, vol. VI, p. 321.
93. Ibid., p. 323.
94. Hourmouzios, p. 169.

Chapter 8: Yugoslavia – Between Četniks and Partisans  [top]

1. Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 (DGFP), XII, no. 217.
2. Churchill, vol. III, p. 223.
3. Churchill, vol. II, pp. 579-586.
4. Yugoslavia at War, Yugoslav Government Information Department, London, 1943.
5. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 284-285.
6. Elisabeth Barker, “Relations between Britain and the Royal Jugoslav Government in Exile”, paper presented to the conference on Governments in Exile in London in the Second World War held at the Imperial War Museum, London, 1977, p. 9; FO 371/33440, Sargent minute, December 31, 1941.
7. George Rendel, The Sword and the Olive. Recollections of Diplomacy and the Foreign Service, 1913-1954, p. 213.
8. Barker, note 6 above, p. 10; FO 371/33440, Eden minute, January 9, 1942.
9. F. W. Deakin, The Embattled Mountain, pp. 128-134.
10. Ibid., p. 131.
11. Stevan.K. Pavlowitch, “La France Libre et la Yugoslavie pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale”, Münchner Zeitschrift für Balkankunde, 3. Band, 1980, p. 104.
12. Barker, note 6 above, p. 18; FO 371/33443, Howard minute, November 5, 1942.
13. Stevan K. Pavlowitch, Espoir – Revue de l’Institut Charles de Gaulle, Paris, Mars, 1983, p. 55.
14. Walter R. Roberts, Tito, Mihailović and the Allies, 1941-1945, p. 62; Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS).Diplomatic Papers. The Conferences at Washington, 1941-1942, and Casablanca, 1943, p. 445.
15. Barker, note 6 above, p. 19; FO 371/37592, Rendel letters to Howard, December 28, 1942, and December 29, 1942.
16. Moša Pijade, About the Legend that the Yugoslav Uprising Owed its Existence to Soviet Assistance, p. 20.
17. Deakin, p. 126; Roberts, p. 27.
18. John Ehrman, Grand Strategy, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1956-1976 [see under Butler in Bibliography], vol. V, p. 77.
19. Deakin, p. 137; Roberts, p. 34.
20. Roberts, p. 34.
21. Deakin, p. 140.
22. Roberts, p. 72, note 17. Reprinted in The Trial of Dragoljub-Draža Mihailović. Stenographic Record and Documents from the Trial of Dragoljub-Draža Mihailović, Belgrade, Union of the Journalists’ Association of the Federative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, 1946, p. 354.
23. Roberts, p. 72; Barker, note 6 above, p. 19; FO 371/37578, Rendel’s note, December 31, 1942.
24. Woodward, vol. III, p. 291; FRUS, 1943, vol. II, pp. 987-988.
25. Constantin Fotitch, The War We Lost. Yugoslavia’s Tragedy and the Failure of the West, New York, Viking, 1948, p. 220.
26. Woodward, vol. III, p. 291.
27. Roberts, p. 97 – Mihailović telegram No. 1597, note 23; David Martin, Ally Betrayed. The Uncensored Story of Tito and Mihailovich, New York, Prentice-Hall, 1946, p. 216.
28. Deakin, p. 189. Text reproduced from Why the Allies Abandoned the Yugoslav Army of General Mihailović. With Official Memoranda and Documents, by Lt. Colonel Zivan L. Knezevich, reproduced from typewritten copy, Washington, DC, 1945.
29. Woodward, vol. III, p. 292.
30. Deakin, p. 213.
31. Deakin, p. 219.
32. Roberts, p. 114.
33. Roberts, pp. 106-112; also Milovan Djilas, Wartime, p. 242; see also Vladimir Dedijer, Further Contributions Towards a Biography of Josip Broz Tito.
34. Roberts, p. 109, note 54.
35. Roberts, p. 114.
36. Deakin, p. 69.
37. Ibid., p. 67.
38. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 296-297.
39. Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, p. 192.
40. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 306-307.
41. Ibid., p. 302.
42. Churchill, vol. V, p. 470.
43. Ibid.
44. Ibid., p. 471.
45. Ibid., p. 473.
46. Ibid., p. 474.
47. Ibid., pp. 474-5.
48. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 316-17.
49. Churchill, vol. V, p. 471, January 8, 1944.
50. Robert Murphy, Diplomat Among Warriers,[sic] p. 248.
51. Woodward, vol. III, p. 316, note 1.
52. Macmillan, pp. 568-69.
53. Woodward, vol. III, p. 287.
54. Fitzroy Maclean, Disputed Barricade. The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito, Marshal of Jugoslavia, p. 204, January 31, 1943.
55. Ibid, p. 195.
56. Ibid., p. 256.
57. Roberts, p. 177, note 38; Vladimir Dedijer, Tito, p. 209.
58. Maclean, p. 256.
59. Roberts, p. 177, note 39; FRUS, 1943, vol. II, pp. 1025-1026.
60. Maclean, p. 191.
61. Ibid., p. 206.
62. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 350 and 152.
63. Eden, p. 432.
64. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. An Intimate History,  p. 711.
65. Roberts, p. 209, note 43; FRUS, 1944, vol. IV, p. 1353.
66. Fotitch, p. 264; Roberts, p. 211, note 17.
67. Roberts, p. 213, note 51; FRUS, 1944, vol. IV, p. 1356.
68. Murphy, p. 221; Roberts, p. 213, note 51.
69. Roberts, pp. 219-220, note 4; FRUS, 1944, vol. IV, pp. 1366-1368.
70. Woodward, vol. III, pp. 364-369; Eden, pp. 523-524.
71. John W. Wheeler-Bennett, King George VI. His Life and Reign, p. 733.
72. Churchill, vol. VI, pp. 92-93.
73. Ibid., vol. V, pp. 651-652.
74. Ibid., vol. V, p. 652.
75. FO 371/33479–R932/626/92, February 2, 1942; R 932/G, - February 17, 1942.
76. R 2583, June 1, 1942.
77. R 3799-101, June 6, 1942.
78. R 932/626/G, February 18, 1942.
79. R 3956/626/92, June 2, 1942.
80. Roberts, p. 62, note 31; FRUS, The Conferences at Washington, 1941-1942, and Casablanca, 1943, p. 445.
81. FRUS, 1943, vol. II, Europe, p. 985.
82. Roberts, p. 166.
83. Ibid., p. 174, note 29; also p. 137.
84. Ibid., p. 181, note 51; FRUS, 1943, vol. II, p. 1032.
85. Fotitch, pp. 274ff.; Roberts, p. 179, note 44.
86. Churchill, vol. V, p. 476.
87. Roberts, p. 207.
88. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York, No. 633, quoted by Roberts, p. 210, note 46.
89. Churchill, vol. V, pp. 477-478.
90. Woodward, vol. III, p. 361.
91. Ibid., p. 363.
92. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, O.M., 1938-1945, p. 692, January 3, 1945.
93. Two Proclamations of H.M. Peter II of Yugoslavia to His Peoples. . ., Yugoslav Documents No. 5, private edition, Fulham, Buckenham & Son.
94. Ibid.
95. Woodward, vol. III, p. 333.
96. Ibid., p. 347.
97. Ibid., p. 353.
98. Ibid., pp. 350-351.
99. Woodward (ibid., p. 352) notes that, according to the agreement, the government would consist of twenty-eight members, of whom five would be Subašić and his colleagues in the then Royal Government. Since two of these colleagues were representatives of Tito’s partisans, the Marshal would have a majority of twenty-five to three.


Yapou: Governments in Exile, 1939-1945
[go to top]

Introduction Czechoslovakia Poland Norway Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Greece Yugoslavia

Preface & Introduction
Chapter 1: CZECHOSLOVAKIA - From Putney to Prague
Chapter 2: POLAND - The Polish Eagle
Chapter 3: NORWAY - Neutral into Ally
Chapter 4: BELGIUM - Disintegration and Resurrection
Chapter 5: LUXEMBOURG - The Smallest Ally
Chapter 6: THE NETHERLANDS - Under the Banner of the Queen of Orange
Chapter 7: GREECE - From National Unity to Civil War
Chapter 8: YUGOSLAVIA - Between Četniks and Partisans
SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Return to Table of Contents